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The variety radiatus is associated with cloud rows of a particular type that appear to converge at the horizon. It is sometimes seen with the fibratus and uncinus species of cirrus, the stratiformis species of altocumulus and stratocumulus, the mediocris and sometimes humilis species of cumulus,   and with the genus altostratus.
Another variety, duplicatus closely spaced layers of the same type, one above the other , is sometimes found with cirrus of both the fibratus and uncinus species, and with altocumulus and stratocumulus of the species stratiformis and lenticularis.
The variety undulatus having a wavy undulating base can occur with any clouds of the species stratiformis or lenticularis, and with altostratus.
It is only rarely observed with stratus nebulosus. The variety lacunosus is caused by localized downdrafts that create circular holes in the form of a honeycomb or net.
It is occasionally seen with cirrocumulus and altocumulus of the species stratiformis, castellanus, and floccus, and with stratocumulus of the species stratiformis and castellanus.
It is possible for some species to show combined varieties at one time, especially if one variety is opacity-based and the other is pattern-based.
An example of this would be a layer of altocumulus stratiformis arranged in seemingly converging rows separated by small breaks. The full technical name of a cloud in this configuration would be altocumulus stratiformis radiatus perlucidus , which would identify respectively its genus, species, and two combined varieties.
Supplementary features and accessory clouds are not further subdivisions of cloud types below the species and variety level. Rather, they are either hydrometeors or special cloud types with their own Latin names that form in association with certain cloud genera, species, and varieties.
Accessory clouds, by contrast, are generally detached from the main cloud. One group of supplementary features are not actual cloud formations, but precipitation that falls when water droplets or ice crystals that make up visible clouds have grown too heavy to remain aloft.
Virga is a feature seen with clouds producing precipitation that evaporates before reaching the ground, these being of the genera cirrocumulus, altocumulus, altostratus, nimbostratus, stratocumulus, cumulus, and cumulonimbus.
When the precipitation reaches the ground without completely evaporating, it is designated as the feature praecipitatio. Of the latter, upward-growing cumulus mediocris produces only isolated light showers, while downward growing nimbostratus is capable of heavier, more extensive precipitation.
Towering vertical clouds have the greatest ability to produce intense precipitation events, but these tend to be localized unless organized along fast-moving cold fronts.
Showers of moderate to heavy intensity can fall from cumulus congestus clouds. Cumulonimbus, the largest of all cloud genera, has the capacity to produce very heavy showers.
Low stratus clouds usually produce only light precipitation, but this always occurs as the feature praecipitatio due to the fact this cloud genus lies too close to the ground to allow for the formation of virga.
Incus is the most type-specific supplementary feature, seen only with cumulonimbus of the species capillatus. A cumulonimbus incus cloud top is one that has spread out into a clear anvil shape as a result of rising air currents hitting the stability layer at the tropopause where the air no longer continues to get colder with increasing altitude.
The mamma feature forms on the bases of clouds as downward-facing bubble-like protuberances caused by localized downdrafts within the cloud.
It is also sometimes called mammatus , an earlier version of the term used before a standardization of Latin nomenclature brought about by the World Meterorological Organization during the 20th century.
The best-known is cumulonimbus with mammatus , but the mamma feature is also seen occasionally with cirrus, cirrocumulus, altocumulus, altostratus, and stratocumulus.
A tuba feature is a cloud column that may hang from the bottom of a cumulus or cumulonimbus. A newly formed or poorly organized column might be comparatively benign, but can quickly intensify into a funnel cloud or tornado.
An arcus feature is a roll cloud with ragged edges attached to the lower front part of cumulus congestus or cumulonimbus that forms along the leading edge of a squall line or thunderstorm outflow.
The feature fluctus can form under conditions of strong atmospheric wind shear when a stratocumulus, altocumulus, or cirrus cloud breaks into regularly spaced crests.
This variant is sometimes known informally as a Kelvin—Helmholtz wave cloud. This phenomenon has also been observed in cloud formations over other planets and even in the sun's atmosphere.
The supplementary feature cavum is a circular fall-streak hole that occasionally forms in a thin layer of supercooled altocumulus or cirrocumulus.
Fall streaks consisting of virga or wisps of cirrus are usually seen beneath the hole as ice crystals fall out to a lower altitude.
This type of hole is usually larger than typical lacunosus holes. A murus feature is a cumulonimbus wall cloud with a lowering, rotating cloud base than can lead to the development of tornadoes.
A cauda feature is a tail cloud that extends horizontally away from the murus cloud and is the result of air feeding into the storm.
Supplementary cloud formations detached from the main cloud are known as accessory clouds. A group of accessory clouds comprise formations that are associated mainly with upward-growing cumuliform and cumulonimbiform clouds of free convection.
Pileus is a cap cloud that can form over a cumulonimbus or large cumulus cloud,  whereas a velum feature is a thin horizontal sheet that sometimes forms like an apron around the middle or in front of the parent cloud.
It is formed by the warm, humid inflow of a super-cell thunderstorm, and can be mistaken for a tornado. Although the flumen can indicate a tornado risk, it is similar in appearance to pannus or scud clouds and does not rotate.
Clouds initially form in clear air or become clouds when fog rises above surface level. The genus of a newly formed cloud is determined mainly by air mass characteristics such as stability and moisture content.
If these characteristics change over time, the genus tends to change accordingly. When this happens, the original genus is called a mother cloud.
If the mother cloud retains much of its original form after the appearance of the new genus, it is termed a genitus cloud.
One example of this is stratocumulus cumulogenitus , a stratocumulus cloud formed by the partial spreading of a cumulus type when there is a loss of convective lift.
If the mother cloud undergoes a complete change in genus, it is considered to be a mutatus cloud. The genitus and mutatus categories have been expanded to include certain types that do not originate from pre-existing clouds.
The term flammagenitus Latin for 'fire-made' applies to cumulus congestus or cumulonimbus that are formed by large scale fires or volcanic eruptions.
Smaller low-level "pyrocumulus" or "fumulus" clouds formed by contained industrial activity are now classified as cumulus homogenitus Latin for 'man-made'.
Contrails formed from the exhaust of aircraft flying in the upper level of the troposphere can persist and spread into formations resembling any of the high cloud genus-types and are now officially designated as cirrus, cirrostratus, or cirrocumulus homogenitus.
If a homogenitus cloud of one genus changes to another genus type, it is then termed a homomutatus cloud. Stratus cataractagenitus Latin for 'cataract-made' are generated by the spray from waterfalls.
Silvagenitus Latin for 'forest-made' is a stratus cloud that forms as water vapor is added to the air above a forest canopy.
Stratocumulus clouds can be organized into "fields" that take on certain specially classified shapes and characteristics.
In general, these fields are more discernible from high altitudes than from ground level. They can often be found in the following forms:.
When the wind and clouds encounter high elevation land features such as a vertically prominent islands, they can form eddies around the high land masses that give the clouds a twisted appearance.
Although the local distribution of clouds can be significantly influenced by topography, the global prevalence of cloud cover in the troposphere tends to vary more by latitude.
It is most prevalent in and along low pressure zones of surface tropospheric convergence which encircle the Earth close to the equator and near the 50th parallels of latitude in the northern and southern hemispheres.
These extratropical convergence zones are occupied by the polar fronts where air masses of polar origin meet and clash with those of tropical or subtropical origin.
Divergence is the opposite of convergence. In the Earth's troposphere, it involves the horizontal outflow of air from the upper part of a rising column of air, or from the lower part of a subsiding column often associated with an area or ridge of high pressure.
The latter are sometimes referred to as the horse latitudes. The presence of a large-scale high-pressure subtropical ridge on each side of the equator reduces cloudiness at these low latitudes.
The luminance or brightness of a cloud is determined by how light is reflected, scattered, and transmitted by the cloud's particles.
Its brightness may also be affected by the presence of haze or photometeors such as halos and rainbows. Tiny particles of water are densely packed and sunlight cannot penetrate far into the cloud before it is reflected out, giving a cloud its characteristic white color, especially when viewed from the top.
As a result, the cloud base can vary from a very light to very-dark-grey depending on the cloud's thickness and how much light is being reflected or transmitted back to the observer.
High thin tropospheric clouds reflect less light because of the comparatively low concentration of constituent ice crystals or supercooled water droplets which results in a slightly off-white appearance.
However, a thick dense ice-crystal cloud appears brilliant white with pronounced grey shading because of its greater reflectivity.
As a tropospheric cloud matures, the dense water droplets may combine to produce larger droplets. If the droplets become too large and heavy to be kept aloft by the air circulation, they will fall from the cloud as rain.
By this process of accumulation, the space between droplets becomes increasingly larger, permitting light to penetrate farther into the cloud.
If the cloud is sufficiently large and the droplets within are spaced far enough apart, a percentage of the light that enters the cloud is not reflected back out but is absorbed giving the cloud a darker look.
A simple example of this is one's being able to see farther in heavy rain than in heavy fog. Striking cloud colorations can be seen at any altitude, with the color of a cloud usually being the same as the incident light.
Thin clouds may look white or appear to have acquired the color of their environment or background. When the sun is just below the horizon, low-level clouds are gray, middle clouds appear rose-colored, and high clouds are white or off-white.
Clouds at night are black or dark grey in a moonless sky, or whitish when illuminated by the moon. They may also reflect the colors of large fires, city lights, or auroras that might be present.
A cumulonimbus cloud that appears to have a greenish or bluish tint is a sign that it contains extremely high amounts of water; hail or rain which scatter light in a way that gives the cloud a blue color.
A green colorization occurs mostly late in the day when the sun is comparatively low in the sky and the incident sunlight has a reddish tinge that appears green when illuminating a very tall bluish cloud.
Supercell type storms are more likely to be characterized by this but any storm can appear this way. Coloration such as this does not directly indicate that it is a severe thunderstorm, it only confirms its potential.
In addition, the stronger the updraft is, the more likely the storm is to undergo tornadogenesis and to produce large hail and high winds.
Yellowish clouds may be seen in the troposphere in the late spring through early fall months during forest fire season. The yellow color is due to the presence of pollutants in the smoke.
Yellowish clouds are caused by the presence of nitrogen dioxide and are sometimes seen in urban areas with high air pollution levels.
An occurrence of cloud iridescence with altocumulus volutus and cirrocumulus stratiformis. Sunset reflecting shades of pink onto grey stratocumulus stratiformis translucidus becoming perlucidus in the background.
Stratocumulus stratiformis perlucidus before sunset. Late-summer rainstorm in Denmark. Nearly black color of base indicates main cloud in foreground probably cumulonimbus.
Particles in the atmosphere and the sun 's angle enhance colors of stratocumulus cumulogenitus at evening twilight. Clouds exert numerous influences on Earth's troposphere and climate.
First and foremost, they are the source of precipitation, thereby greatly influencing the distribution and amount of precipitation.
Because of their differential buoyancy relative to surrounding cloud-free air, clouds can be associated with vertical motions of the air that may be convective, frontal, or cyclonic.
The motion is upward if the clouds are less dense because condensation of water vapor releases heat, warming the air and thereby decreasing its density.
This can lead to downward motion because lifting of the air results in cooling that increases its density.
All of these effects are subtly dependent on the vertical temperature and moisture structure of the atmosphere and result in major redistribution of heat that affect the Earth's climate.
The complexity and diversity of clouds is a major reason for difficulty in quantifying the effects of clouds on climate and climate change.
On the one hand, white cloud tops promote cooling of Earth's surface by reflecting shortwave radiation visible and near infrared from the sun, diminishing the amount of solar radiation that is absorbed at the surface, enhancing the Earth's albedo.
Most of the sunlight that reaches the ground is absorbed, warming the surface, which emits radiation upward at longer, infrared, wavelengths.
At these wavelengths, however, water in the clouds acts as an efficient absorber. The water reacts by radiating, also in the infrared, both upward and downward, and the downward longwave radiation results in increased warming at the surface.
This is analogous to the greenhouse effect of greenhouse gases and water vapor. High-level genus-types particularly show this duality with both short-wave albedo cooling and long-wave greenhouse warming effects.
On the whole, ice-crystal clouds in the upper troposphere cirrus tend to favor net warming. As difficult as it is to evaluate the influences of current clouds on current climate, it is even more problematic to predict changes in cloud patterns and properties in a future, warmer climate, and the resultant cloud influences on future climate.
In a warmer climate more water would enter the atmosphere by evaporation at the surface; as clouds are formed from water vapor, cloudiness would be expected to increase.
But in a warmer climate, higher temperatures would tend to evaporate clouds. Both of these statements are considered accurate, and both phenomena, known as cloud feedbacks, are found in climate model calculations.
Broadly speaking, if clouds, especially low clouds, increase in a warmer climate, the resultant cooling effect leads to a negative feedback in climate response to increased greenhouse gases.
But if low clouds decrease, or if high clouds increase, the feedback is positive. Differing amounts of these feedbacks are the principal reason for differences in climate sensitivities of current global climate models.
As a consequence, much research has focused on the response of low and vertical clouds to a changing climate. Leading global models produce quite different results, however, with some showing increasing low clouds and others showing decreases.
Polar stratospheric clouds form in the lowest part of the stratosphere during the winter , at the altitude and during the season that produces the coldest temperatures and therefore the best chances of triggering condensation caused by adiabatic cooling.
They are typically very thin with an undulating cirriform appearance. They are given the Latin name noctilucent because of their illumination well after sunset and before sunrise.
They typically have a bluish or silvery white coloration that can resemble brightly illuminated cirrus. Noctilucent clouds may occasionally take on more of a red or orange hue.
Noctilucent clouds are the highest in the atmosphere and form near the top of the mesosphere at about ten times the altitude of tropospheric high clouds.
Ongoing research indicates that convective lift in the mesosphere is strong enough during the polar summer to cause adiabatic cooling of small amount of water vapour to the point of saturation.
This tends to produce the coldest temperatures in the entire atmosphere just below the mesopause. These conditions result in the best environment for the formation of polar mesospheric clouds.
Distribution in the mesosphere is similar to the stratosphere except at much higher altitudes. Because of the need for maximum cooling of the water vapor to produce noctilucent clouds, their distribution tends to be restricted to polar regions of Earth.
A major seasonal difference is that convective lift from below the mesosphere pushes very scarce water vapor to higher colder altitudes required for cloud formation during the respective summer seasons in the northern and southern hemispheres.
Sightings are rare more than 45 degrees south of the north pole or north of the south pole. Cloud cover has been seen on most other planets in the solar system.
Venus 's thick clouds are composed of sulfur dioxide due to volcanic activity and appear to be almost entirely stratiform.
No embedded cumuliform types have been identified, but broken stratocumuliform wave formations are sometimes seen in the top layer that reveal more continuous layer clouds underneath.
Both Jupiter and Saturn have an outer cirriform cloud deck composed of ammonia,   an intermediate stratiform haze-cloud layer made of ammonium hydrosulfide , and an inner deck of cumulus water clouds.
Some planets outside the solar system are known to have atmospheric clouds. In October , the detection of high altitude optically thick clouds in the atmosphere of exoplanet Kepler-7b was announced,   and, in December , in the atmospheres of GJ b and GJ b.
Clouds play an important role in various cultures and religious traditions. The ancient Akkadians believed that the clouds were the breasts of the sky goddess Antu  and that rain was milk from her breasts.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 6 November For other uses, see Cloud disambiguation.
For a comprehensive listing of over 90 combinations of genera divided into species and subdivided into varieties with Latin etymologies, see List of cloud types.
Weather map and Station model. List of cloud types. Intertropical convergence zone , Extratropical cyclone , Cold front , and Warm front.
Subtropical ridge and Polar high. Stratocumulus stratiformis and small castellanus made orange by the sun rising.
Cloud cover , Cloud feedback , Global warming , Global dimming , and Climate change. For Global brightening, see Global dimming. Retrieved 21 June Retrieved 6 December Retrieved 31 July Archived from the original PDF on 25 February Retrieved 2 January Retrieved 18 November Archived from the original on 2 May Retrieved 19 March Retrieved 20 March Retrieved 21 November A World of Weather: Journal of Geophysical Research.
Retrieved 9 November Archived from the original on 12 May Retrieved 27 December University of California in Los Angeles. Retrieved 7 February Meteorology at the Millennium.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Edward; Shry, Carroll L. Retrieved 22 August Retrieved 30 March Retrieved 9 May Retrieved 23 January Retrieved 16 May Retrieved 4 April Retrieved 16 October Influence of the Drop Spectrum".
How to read weather maps. Retrieved 26 April Retrieved 1 February Retrieved 30 December Retrieved 26 August Retrieved 6 April Retrieved 10 April Retrieved 9 April Archived from the original PDF on 16 November Retrieved 15 September Retrieved 9 January University Corporation for Atmospheric Research.
Retrieved 18 July Parish prayers will be at 5: She attended school in St. Cloud, graduating from Tech High School in They lived there for one year before moving back to St.
They were blessed with eight children. She enjoyed bowling, playing cards, dancing, golfing and while visiting having a good glass of wine. She was very active in St.
She also enjoyed 25 years of winter in Arizona with her husband Roman. Most importantly she enjoyed spending time with her children, grandchildren, and extended family.
Margaret was also a member of Eagles Aerie , St. In addition to her parents and husband Roman in , she was preceded in death by son William in , son-in-law John Hoff in , and six brothers and sisters, Sylvester, Alfred, Cyril, and Norbert Sakry, Loretta Huberty, and Bernice Simpson.
Daniel Funeral Homes View Obituaries.